All our classic, vintage photographic and scientific items are USED unless specified otherwise. Cameras, lenses, and accessories haven't been film tested unless stated.
We describe items as accurately as possible. Lenses and camera shutters are visually and audibly inspected. Optical items like rangefinders are visually checked.
Dust inside lenses, even new ones, won't affect images. If you plan to use them professionally, service or cleaning is advised. Expect reasonable functionality and optics without noticeable issues, unless specified. We don't provide maintenance or restoration, just cleaning and basic testing.